?????????? ?? ????????????? ?????? Heshbon: A Historical and Biblical Overview
Heshbon (also spelled Hesebon, Esebon, Esbous, Esebus; Arabic: ØØØÙÙ, Latin: Esebus, Hebrew: , Ancient Greek: áÏÎµÎÏÎ, áÏÏÎµÎÏÎ, áÏÎÎÏÏÎ, áÏÎÎÏÏ, áÏÎÎÏ Ï, áÎÎÎÏ Ï)  is the name of at least two different ancient towns located east of the Jordan River in what is now the Kingdom of Jordan. The first town was the capital of the Amorite king Sihon, who was defeated by the Israelites under Moses during their Exodus from Egypt. The second town was a Roman and Byzantine settlement that has been identified with a tell (archaeological mound) known in Arabic as Tell Hisban or Tell áesbÄn.
The Biblical Heshbon
The biblical Heshbon is mentioned in the Books of Numbers and Deuteronomy as the city of Sihon, king of the Amorites, who had fought against the former king of Moab and had taken all his land out of his hand, as far as the Arnon . The biblical narrative records the story of the Israelite victory over Sihon at Heshbon, which was followed by the death of Moses on Mount Nebo. Heshbon then became a border town between the lands allocated to the tribes of Reuben and Gad, and later a Levitical city for the Merarites  .
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Heshbon also appears in the Song of Solomon, where the poet likens his love's eyes to \"the pools of Heshbon\", which refers to the magnificent fish-pools of Heshbon . The town later came under Moabite and Ammonite control, as indicated by the prophecies of Isaiah and Jeremiah against these nations   .
The Classical Heshbon
The classical town of Heshbon is believed to have been located at the ruin called HesbÃn or Hisban, about 20 km (12 mi) southwest of Amman, and 9 kilometers (5.6 mi) to the north of Madaba. A large ruined reservoir is located east of the place, and below the town there is a fountain . The name occurs in Josephus very often under the form Esbonitis or Sebonitis . According to Josephus, Heshbon was in the possession of the Judeans since Alexander Jannaeus the Maccabee (106â79 B.C.) took it and made it a Jewish town.
Heshbon was also a Christian center during the Roman and Byzantine periods. Several churches and monasteries have been excavated at Tell Hisban, dating from the 4th to the 8th centuries A.D. The town was destroyed by an earthquake in 749 A.D. and never rebuilt.
Heshbon - Wikipedia
Numbers 21:25; Deuteronomy 2:24-37; Joshua 12:2-6
Isaiah 15:4; 16:8-9
Jeremiah 48:2; 48:34; 48:45-46
Song of Solomon 7:4
Josephus, Antiquities XIII.15.4; XIV.1.4; XVIII.5.1; Wars I.4.8; VII.6.1
The Modern Heshbon
Today, the site of Tell Hisban is a popular tourist destination and an archaeological park. The tell offers a panoramic view of the surrounding countryside and the Dead Sea. Visitors can see the remains of the ancient walls, gates, reservoirs, churches, and other structures. The site also hosts a museum that displays some of the artifacts found during the excavations, such as pottery, coins, lamps, mosaics, and inscriptions.
The site of Tell Hisban has been excavated by several teams of archaeologists since the 1960s. The most recent project is the Heshbon Expedition, which is a joint venture of Andrews University, La Sierra University, and Middle East University. The project aims to study the history and culture of Heshbon and its region from the Bronze Age to the Islamic period.
The Significance of Heshbon
Heshbon is a significant site for both biblical and classical studies. It provides evidence for the ancient history of the Transjordan region and its interactions with neighboring peoples and empires. It also sheds light on the religious and social life of the inhabitants of Heshbon throughout the ages. Heshbon is a witness to the diversity and continuity of human civilization in this part of the world. 29c81ba772